Kenneth Morris Lee
View Camera Movements

Focus-stacking and tilt/shift lenses are helpful but sometimes only a view camera provides the solution.
To get similar results with a digital camera, see the Cambo Actus and the Arca Swiss Universalis.


4x5 Sinar P and Typewriter
Note the use of forward tilt in front, backward tilt and swing in rear



Typewriter photographed with above setup
The plane of sharp focus is parallel to the keyboard which is skewed along 2 dimensions
The typewriter keys in the foreground are only sightly larger than those at a distance




Barn photographed with Tachihara 4x5 Field camera using rise, tilt, swing and shift
The camera points straight ahead but looks slightly upwards and to the right
Sharp focus extends from the nearby blades of grass at the lower left to the barn in the distance




Cappuccino cups photographed with front fall, rear rise: film plane parallel to cups
The camera points straight ahead but looks downwards.
The cups remain straight.



Old truck photographed with front fall, front swing
The camera points straight ahead but looks downwards.
The plane of focus matches the side of the truck, so entire subject is in focus




Hydrangea flower photographed with front tilt and swing
The camera back points straight ahead but focus goes from foreground leaf to flower, right to left




Path photographed with 4x5 field camera using front fall and front tilt
The camera points straight ahead but looks downwards
Sharp focus extends from the foreground leaves to distant trees



Wooden rulers photographed with rear rise, front tilt and swing
The camera back points straight ahead but focus is skewed in 2 dimensions.
Everything is in sharp focus and the lines remain parallel.




Typewriter photographed with front tilt and swing
We look straight ahead but plane of focus is parallel to the keyboard from letter H top front of typewriter.




Telephone photographed with front tilt and swing
We look straight ahead but plane of focus is parallel to the face of the phone, skewed along 2 dimensions.
The circular items remain round, not oval.




Bulldozer tractor treads
Can you tell which movements were used ?



Remington Portable Typewriter
Can you tell which movements were used ?